(Muhammad Ijaz -PhD Scholar

According to a well-known American educationist Hitchkins, “Education is more dangerous thing” and also costly. Because, whenever you get education you don’t need to be snubbed by any mode of ruling. As the concern for the cost of education, history tells us that without the support of government, and ruling class, it becomes out of question that common public gets the quality education, research, and development. In Pakistan, education sector have many problems that were supposed to be indicated by our respected DG ISPR in his last press conference. Two problems are the major ones; first one is education being dangerous, and second one is the cost of education. Like other aspects of our state and society, education sector also has a colonial legacy as a pro-colonial and anti-colonial approach. We have to understand this educational dilemma which has divided our society on the basis of economy because our educational system is class based; that has started from Gurukul school system in India during the Vedic age 1500 C.E.
Historically, in India, education always revolves around the religion. Over Indian Territory, four waves of education were introduced by the clergy of different religions, in different time period. In ancient times, when Hindu ruling class disowned the education it went into into the hands of clergy and Guru became the supervisor of educational activities. That was called as the Gurukul School system. In that system, Hindu society was educationally divided into four types: First one was Brahmin class, whose literary activities were considered as religious, second one was Vaish whose syllabus leads them towards warfare techniques third one was Kashtri who acquired the education of business while Shudres remained outside the circle of education because they were considered as serving people. Second wave of education introduced by the Buddhism and that was patronaged by their clergy called monks. Monks established their own educational institutes in India known as “toll”. Third wave of education was introduced by the Sufis of Islam and they established their educational institutes that were known as Maktab, Madrassah, Mosques, and Khanqah. Monks and Sufis have same intention regarding the goals, objectives, and targets of their respective educational system as Gurus and monks had, which was the propagation of their respective religions.
The fourth wave of education came here during colonial period having same footings which the predecessors had. During the colonial period, two types of education were given to the Indian native society. First one is initially Christian missionary which took the responsibility in order to teach us but not differently from that we had learned earlier with the perspective of other clergies intentions. So Cathedral and St. Anthony schools established here for the propagation of Christianity with the justification of modern knowledge under the patronage of Christian clergy and Church. Second type of education system was established directly by colonial master for the elite class with the motto of Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay. The reflection of this mindset is truly reflected even today in India and Pakistan in the form of Aitchison College, Government College (G.C.U. Lahore), Fort William College, Lawrence College, and Daly College etc. Interestingly, the class which was produced by these institutes, served truly to the British Master with the theme and intentions of Lord Macaulay who was Indian in blood and color and English in taste, in opinion, and in intellect. So after 1835, the British Raj’s policy ensured that English language was taught only to a class which was to act as interpreters between rulers and ruled community of India. Zubaida Mustafa tells us in her book, that the precedent was set for the upper classes to be Anglicized and become English speaking. In this way, native educational system became the victim of ruler’s language and intentions while middle and lower classes became the victim of clergy of Christianity and other religions like Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism.
To oppose the religion based education of Christian missionaries, native reaction was natural. First reactionary Indian Muslim institute established after 1857 that was Dar-ul-Aloom-Deoband, which was considered a pioneer of Madrassah chain in India and Pakistan. Deoband’s major objective was to oppose Christianity educationally and gave a platform of education to the lower and middle class so that they can preserve the Muslim traditions along with religious believes. In north-west India, same function was performed by the Chishti madrassah culture. Since colonial period till today, the educational culture has not changed even after the independence. Elite class has Lord Macaually’s model institute while lower class has Deoband model and the change can be observed only in middle class where they have availed different economic based educational activities. Indian traditional educational culture is holding just religious institutes which are serving education to the native people of Pakistan and India free of cost at Patshalla, Toll, and Madrassah. While middle and elite is getting education according to their status. The stuff of colonial institutes like Aitchison are considered as rulers while middle class that is getting education from private schools are proving as best serving people because that education system is producing the job serving mindset, therefore, they are happy in getting the job of 25 to 60 thousands rupees. While Madrassah culture is serving, till today, to lower class and that lower class later on serves the society religiously.
Thanks to rulers who never gave attention on education, because their institutes are serving them in a good way in return of money. Therefore, for them, it is not a major issue. During the elections manifesto, they didn’t even bother to focus over it. Like PPP’s slogan that has been voiced since 1970’s “Rotti, Kapra, Makan” have no space for education. Similarly, PML (N) second major party have no concern towards education while today’s ruling class also have no issue regarding education because worth 50 Lac houses are compulsory for them instead of 30,000 schools. They have the justification that through such mega projects they can overcome the poverty like predecessor’s Metro, Orange train and Ashiana Housing Scheme. In fact, everyone knows that education is a dangerous thing in the world because if they give it to the common people then common people on the behalf of education and awareness will replace them in all the corridors of power with the perspective of true democracy. It was indicated by Aristotle even in 322 B.C that without education you can’t flourish democracy rather you will promote mobocracy. In Pakistan, we can’t practice democracy with 40% literacy rate which can be labeled as mobocracy, indicated by Aristotle, through “Biryani” and “Qeemay Waly Naan” that can be observed during elections. Therefore, every ruler either he is a military dictator or a democrat do not have an objective to educate the nation except Parvez Musharaf who established HEC and focused over higher education. The reason of this lack of attention towards education by the ruling class is the interests of ruling class which is elitist. They know if they want to enjoy the rule then the access of education to everyone should not be their interest because then they won’t be able to snub the rights of lower and middle strata.

email: Ijaz801@live.com


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