Amjad Khan

The Iron Dome detects, assesses and intercepts a variety of shorter-range targets such as rockets, artillery and mortars. It is effective day or night and in all weather conditions including low clouds, rain, dust storms and fog. Israel initially developed the Iron Dome alone after the 2006 Lebanon War, and was later joined by the United States, It’s designed to intercept short-range rockets and artillery, commonly launched from Gaza by groups like Hamas and Islamic Jihad. The system uses radar and analysis to determine if an incoming projectile poses a threat to populated areas or vital infrastructure before launching an interceptor. Israeli authorities claim a success rate of over 90%, though some analysts question this figure. Each Iron Dome interceptor costs between $40,000 and $50,000 to produce, according to the Washington-based Center for Strategic and International Studies. Upon its initial implementation, it demonstrated efficacy against hazards hurled within a range of 4 to 70 kilometers (equivalent to 2.5 to 43 miles). However, subsequent reports suggest that these capabilities have since been enhanced. The think tank estimated that a complete system, including the radar, computer and three to four launchers, each containing up to 20 interceptors ,costs around $100 million to produce. According to a recent analysis by the US Congressional Research Service, the United States has allocated close to $3 billion (€2.8 billion) towards Iron Dome defense systems, including batteries, interceptors, shared production expenses, and ongoing upkeep. Reuters disclosed on Thursday that President Biden intends to seek an additional $14 billion (€13.2 billion) in military assistance for Israel from the US Congress. David’s Sling, operational since 2017, serves as the intermediate layer of Israel’s air defense system. It targets ballistic and cruise missiles, as well as medium- to long-range rockets, with a range of 25 to 186 miles. Developed by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and Raytheon, it complements the Iron Dome’s capabilities. Arrow 2 and Arrow 3 systems are part of Israel’s top-tier air defense network, intercepting missiles outside the Earth’s atmosphere. Completed in 2017, Arrow 3 saw combat testing recently by intercepting a missile launched by Houthi rebels in Yemen, supported by Iran, toward Eilat, Israel. Co-funded and developed with the United States, Arrow 3 relies on the collision’s damage without explosives, unlike Arrow 2. On October 31, Israel’s military condemned that it had used the Arrow aerial defence system for the first time since the October 7 outbreak of the war with Hamas to intercept a surface-to-surface missile in the Red Sea fired towards its territory. How it works: Radar unit: Identify an incoming missile or projectile targeting Israeli airspace. Control unit: Information regarding the missile is transmitted to a battle management and control unit which evaluates the danger and charts a course for interception. Firing unit: A launching apparatus fires a projectile outfitted with radar and a unique payload that neutralizes the approaching danger. Biggest test yet: Hamas militants initiated an assault by launching a barrage of rockets from the blockaded Gaza Strip toward Israel, as a surprise attack sparking renewed hostilities in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In the initial stages of the ongoing conflict, the substantial volume of rockets fired by Hamas, estimated to range from 2,200 to over 3,000 (although Hamas claims to have launched 5,000), appeared to overwhelm Israel’s defense system. Approximately 1,200 Israelis were killed or captured in Hamas’ offensive on October 7. Iran launched over 300 drones and missiles (according to Israel media the strike based on 185 drones, 110 surface to surface missiles, 36 Cruise missiles ) at Israel during the night, of which 99% were intercepted, marking a significant strategic success, according to the Israeli military on Sunday morning. The strike lasted five hours. According to CNN, “this is the largest drone attack in history”.

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