Pakistan’s capital city, Islamabad, is Pakistan’s most populous and most varied metropolis. It is home to Pakistan’s largest concentration of foreign residents and expatriates. The capital’s ever-increasing population has resulted in urban sprawl on the capital’s fertile farmland. Islamabad is located at an elevation of 457–610 meters. Islamabad has a land area of 906.50 km2. The Specified Green Area covers an additional 3626 km2, with the Margalla Hills to the north and northeast. Islamabad lies 14 kilometers northeast of Rawalpindi, on the northeastern edge of Punjab’s Potohar plateau. In terms of coordinates, it is located at 33°49? north and 72°24? east of Greenwich. The city of Islamabad, Pakistan’s capital, was planned from the beginning. The town was intended to be a small residential enclave for civil servants and government workers. Zone-1 is broken into alphabetical sections (e.g., E, F, G, H, I). The Markaz — the sector marketplace – is organized into four sub-sectors. Zone-III is characterized by mountain forests and piedmonts. Zone-IV and the north Zone-V are mainly characterized by agricultural landscape, while the south Zone-V close to Rawalpindi City is characterized by private houses, social and industrial facilities. Over the past decade and a half, the land cost in this area has risen. Those who relocate to Islamabad find it challenging to afford to live in this neighborhood.
Problems in sustainable development are addressed by urban growth. In developing nations, in particular, sustainable urban expansion must contend with serious obstacles such as slow economic and social progress, population growth, environmental deterioration, unemployment, slums, and so on. Residents of the city centre, with a few exceptions, have high standards of living and typically engage house help services for cleaning, cooking, driving, gardening, and babysitting. The planned metropolis has no room for the section of society that provides these services. Islamabad’s master plan envisaged the city’s working-class drawing from Rawalpindi. The slums around Islamabad began to rise slowly as the city’s need for labour class increased. There are currently 42 slums in Islamabad, with well over 100,000 people. Several of these colonies have been bulldozed by the local administration, sparking national outrage worldwide. There has been no policy to include Islamabad’s low labour class in the city’s master plan. These people are supposed to come up for work and then vanish into the night without detracting from the city’s natural charm.
There are 5 major determinants in urban growth: population, transportation networks, master planning, industrial and real estate development, and the neighbor urban effect. Socioeconomic sustainability is linked to slum growth and census statistics, and environmental sustainability is related to fluctuations in forest regions’ normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Slums in Islamabad grew in tandem with the city’s urban area and population, indicating the city’s slow economic progress. Although the amount of wood rose by 9.29%, the NDVI declined from 0.668 to 0.551, indicating a deterioration in the environment. The flow of newcomers to a city determines its future development. In 1992 Islamabad’s built up area was 18.09% which increase till 2012 and become 56.73%. The estimated population of the city was about 2 million, of which 397,731 had migrated here in 1998-2017. Since 2018, more than 55% of the world’s population has resided in urban areas. By 2050, this figure is predicted to rise to 68 %. 128,753 housing units in Islamabad were counted in the 2017 census, with 5.64 % being semi-pakka (made of clay and cement) and 6.39 % entirely Katcha (built with clay). The fact that 20.74 % of these housing units lack a kitchen, 24.30 % lack a bathroom, and 27.61 % lack a toilet facility illustrates the severity of the city’s housing situation. A policy that considers the city’s burgeoning population and the necessity of affordable housing for people from all walks of life is needed. The state has to ensure that metropolitan areas are accessible to all citizens. Urban poverty and slums are exacerbated by rapid urbanisation, especially in developing countries, because local governments cannot provide adequate services and infrastructure. Ecological impacts of urbanisation include changing local temperature conditions, destroying and fragmenting native ecosystems, and the generation of anthropogenic pollutants, among others. The spatial arrangement of a landscape has been shown to impact ecological processes.
We need some urgent planning in our existing housing and development systems.
1- Home Owing Society
2- Compact Cities
3- Dormitories suburbs connected with motorways
4- Tightly packed well order cities
100 years ago 2 out of 10 live in city. By midcentury it will increase 70%. If you think modern cities are overcrowded you may be surprise to read that some cities in 2000 BC had dense population twice as high that of Shanghai and Calcutta. Where few sources of clean water existed and the land area restricted by the need of wall for security. Until the industrial revolution, when new technology deployed on a mass scale which allow cities to expand and integrate further establishing police, fire, sanitation departments, road networks and electricity distribution. Global population is currently more than 7 billion which increase to ward 10 billion by end of 2040. Most of this growth in the urban areas of the world’s poorest countries or developed countries.
To handle these issue we need to provide adequate food, sanitation and education for all people. Growth will need to happen in a way that does not damage the land that provide us good and services that support the human population. food production should move to vertical farms and skyscrapers, need rooftop gardens, vacant lots in city centers, Instead of single family home more residence will be built vertically, we need building that contain everything that people need for their daily life. Smaller self-sufficient cities which focus on local and sustainable production. Future cities are diverse, malleable and creative.
We need order, symmetry, balance and repetition in our Islamabad developments. Order is the one of the reason people love Paris. But Islamabad turn out as mess which means no one incharge of these haphazard construction projects. We experienced pitched roof, next to flat roof, a geometrical box with rectangular car parks. High rise towers with small grounded plaza, we need to straight things out other than that it create frustrations.
Skyscrapers dumped without planning in London is look like Islamabad’s future. Whereas New York and Chicago an ordered way which we all love. Creativity in order is a key element don’t build barracks build beautiful cities. Variety in order is another new element which we need to add in our Islamabad. Height should be same but color or design may varies like Amsterdam.
Streets should be attractive, full of life, have some greenery and attractive. Modern planners build street more contacted with humans. Balancing the moderate influence of living close to the people in uplifting surroundings. We need to follow the Rome, Piazza di Santa Maria in Trastevere. Its intimate closed enough to feel like extension of your home lounging about here, having coffee bar, reading corner for book lover or newspaper habitual. You get to be around other people, their moderating, cheering affect is restoring. It takes you away from obsessed atmosphere of the home. Once Joseph Campbell said “If you want to see what a society really believes in, look at what the biggest buildings on the horizon are dedicated too”. The biggest most prominent things tell us about the actual, rather than admitted priorities of a society. Because we focus on who owns land instead of who own space? Who has air rights? At end who has air rights determines what you can see from your window. Ideal height of any block is 5 stories, above that people start to feel small, insignificant and trivial like we have examples in Berlin, Amsterdam, London, Paris and Singapore. Occasionally there can be a huge building with some special purpose who have ambitions and long term needs like museum.
Cities need to have strong characters connected to the use of distinctive local materials and forms. Your cities should reflect some association with your culture, local customs, norms or traditions. Sustainable and beautiful cities have only ever been created when governments impose strict and ambitious regulation to keep the greedy, private builders in check. The goal of building should be put things that don’t leave us regretting the nature that’s been lost.