Earth’s energy endowment

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Engr. Zeenat Naz Tumrani
The planet earth uses a number of natural sources of energy which experience from continental drift to photosynthesis and sustain life on earth. Those energy sources are flows and fuels; the former includes solar energy which accounts for 99.98% energy arriving on earth. The sunlight travels 93 miles between sun and earth within 8 minutes and releases 1017 watts/s. Where incoming energy is 69%, direct conversion to thermal energy 45%, evaporation 23%, winds and ocean currents 1% and photosynthesis 0.08%, tidal energy 0.0017% and later the second larger source is the energy in earth’s interior, its geothermal flow shares 0.025%, fossil fuels 0.007% – this source has been used excessively, nuclear fuels 0.0005%, human uses 0.008% and the minimal share of starlight and cosmic rays. At present scientific studies focus energy alternatives and renewable energy sources to suffice energy needs in future to avert the threat of increasing average temperature of earth by 1.5 percent during the last ten years. Where Kyoto protocol 1997 and Paris agreement 2016 have engaged with empty promises are the same and inaction is the same. Though the UN says the world is 1 degree hotter than pre industrial times around 1800 which is okay. The planet stands fine at 1.5 degree warmer and even if 2 degree increase be alright too till the end of this century. The problem is the speed of rising average temperature of earth; 1.5 degrees has increased during the last ten years. The threat to earth may be avoided with efficient use of energy alternatives and renewable energy sources. Though scientists keep a keen interest experimenting the means to use hydrogen in seawater, hydrogen gas possibilities on the moon which may be used as chemical fuel and methane on Saturn’s moon