District Thatta is the last district, neighboring Sujawal district of Sindh located in the Indus Delta region which mainstreams the flow of water into Arabian Sea from Kharochaan, Keti Bandar, and Bhambhore. This district has been a popular region in terms of education since last 500 years and its rise was noted in the historical chapters of anthropology, culture, language and literature, science, arts and religious studies of Sindh. Notwithstanding the invaders’ attacks which ruined Thatta many times, it has been revitalizing its existence from centuries to centuries. Thatta has been famous due to its rise in educational fields in the past. Though that rise is not maintained up to now due to fluctuations in time which made it backward and far from the rapid transformations of time in world, but still the successors are living here in the shapes of historians, poets, philosophers who are struggling for the rise and fighting against the factors involved in the educational fall of Thatta. In order to know the prevalent situation of the former capital of Sindh, a little study was done in Thatta. Prior to the current study, various other studies have been done but the recent study was intervened recently in 2016 which clearly reveals the evidence of the educational rise of Thatta which is improving day by day so various teaching practices in the schools of the district were noted. Hence, a comparative analysis was carried out in order to know the efficient and effective standard of using such aids in the schools. For this, 100 public and private sector schools were selected in the random sampling technique with delimitation and limitation variables and the data collection instruments of interview and questionnaires were made to obtain facts and figures from the students, teachers, heads and community of the schools in both ways; qualitatively and quantitatively. It was found that there are many teaching practices revived among schools as well as the aids are available these days in the various schools of the district. Each of it has its own salient features and specifications to be used with special reference to the content and subject matter. Let’s take a glance at its overview in a nutshell. Either, we may classify these aids from the broader classification of teaching aids: Electronic or Projected teaching aids are ICT related aids like Computer, Social media, Transparencies, Laser Printers etc. Audio Aids are Loudspeaker, Social media contents of audio, Radio, Microphones etc are all of the aids which involve the sense of hearing are called Audio aids while as the Video Aids are all Computer based media or Social media, Skype, Whats-App, YouTube, Tablet PC, Overhead Multimedia projector etc; means the aids which use sense of vision are called Visual aids. Its few other examples which were found in the schools are actual objects, models, pictures, charts, maps, flash cards, flannel board, bulletin board, chalkboard, overhead projector, slides etc. Out of these black board and chalk are the commonest ones. Few are non-electronic or non projected teaching aids like; Graphs: Pie, Bar, Line, Pictorial etc, Models: Scale, Cross etc, Specimen: Living model, Non Print Charts, Pull Chart, Narrative chart Flip chart, Chalks, Realia, Field Trips, excursion, Markers etc. The Printed Materials were found in all schools like; Cartons, Printed Charts: Evaluation, Flow, Pedigree Chart, Pictorial etc, Diagrams, Textbooks, Books, Reports, Handouts, Pictures and Posters etc.

It was found that only 38% of the public sector schools of Thatta are focusing and using teaching aids while 60% of private schools are though using the teaching aids but their staff is untrained, inexperienced and not eligible to teach from academic qualification perspectives. One of the famous schools of private sector from the district was checked for teachers’ qualification and it was very known with so shocking and sad reality that 70% of its all teachers were found non-graduate and untrained professionally (non BEd). Contrasting facts were found in the public sector schools where all teachers were graduated, trained but they are not teaching their subjects as per the Bloom’s Taxonomy and the capabilities of academic and professional qualification which they have. When the basic questions were given in questionnaires to the both types of teachers; the results ratio was 1:3 which indicated that the worst system of education is going on in the district. The standard deviation using various mean and mode were calculated as well as Anova was found using SPSS keeping <4 as significant value. It was calculated that public school teachers are more efficient than the private sectors. However, all the public sector teachers were very good in conducting the class without even planning the lesson while as when the lesson plan was checked for private schools; it was revealed that most of the teachers were found unplanned but conducting the classes. Emergence of education is ongoing nowadays in Sindh and its backward district Thatta. Therefore, the government of Sindh must take serious steps in order to provide refresher training to the existing teachers of all public and private sector schools and fill the vacancy of teachers on immediate basis in order to provide quality education to the students. From the results, it is clear that Thatta may get a rise in education very soon.

(- The writer is researcher and senior mentor of Thatta, Sindh.)


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