Why Increase Defense Budget …


Hamza Ajmal Niazi
The factors including the geographic location of the country, nature of territorial boundaries, and
pattern of relations with the neighboring countries shape defense policy of any country. Pakistan is
surrounded by three superpowers China, Russia, and India. Geographically, Pakistan has a key strategic
position in South Asia. The security issues of the country are of key importance. To understand the
defense policy of the country one has to understand the behavior of the neighboring states as well as of
the superpowers towards the country. Pakistan has received a minimum of its share of arms and other
equipment from India at the time of independence. It did not inherit even a single ordinance factory or
army training center. Since independence, India has proved itself a riotous neighbor towards Pakistan.
Right After partition, the First Kashmir War started in October 1947. Later on, in 1965 a full-scale war
erupted, giving rise to the largest battle of tanks. Later on, in 1971, Indian insurgency in East Pakistan
and attack on Pakistan resulted in the dismemberment of the Eastern Wing of the country. Hence,
Pakistan has joined West sponsored Security treaties like SEATO and CENTO to secure its territory from
any foreign invasion but this has not helped Pakistan in any of the wars with India. During the war of
1965 and 1971, the United States has stopped the military aid towards Pakistan. Hence the need self-
dependent an armed force was felt and the defense policy was tilted towards China and Other
Communist countries. This required larger defense budgets. After India’s atomic test in 1974’s, the
balance of power has been disturbed. To neutralize, India’s hegemony in South Asia Pakistan has started
its nuclear program. After 1998, the atomic tests of Pakistan have added to the strategic importance. To
gain a leading place in “Politics of South Asia” India keeps on redoubling its military equipment. India has
become the world’s second-largest importer of major arms in 2014-18 and accounted for 9.5 percent of
the global total. To cope up with this scenario, to retain its independent existence Pakistan needs a
strong, self-dependent army is the basic requirement. For this reason, a large part of the budget is
allocated to the defense. Defense expenditure gas ranged from about 73% of the total expenditure
during 1947-83. On average it was 53.48% of the total expenditure. Military Budget remained increasing
till 2017. In the year 2017, a decline of 0.75% in the military budget, reciprocated in 2018 as a result of
India’s continuous threats of an escalating war. Besides Cross border violations and border security
concerns, Pakistan is facing internal issues. After becoming a part of the war on terror, Pakistan has
faced a wave of terrorism with the country. To counter this wave of terror and bringing peace in the
country military operations have been conducted. Following other military operations, since the launch
of operation Rad Ul Fassad direct or indirect economic cost of 68 billion us dollars from 2000-10. This
operation is continued. On the other hand, in each calamity or accident, the Pakistan army has to serve
in rescue operations. The expected military expenditure of the Pakistan army will be 13000 US $ million
by the end of 2020. The allocated budget of the year 2020-2021 has 12686 US $ million which is
increased up to 11.8% from the previous year. Concluding more! To secure territorial integrity, it is
national as well as a religious obligation for Muslims to prepare themselves against their enemy. In the
Quran, it is a commandment of Allah “Believers! Always be on your guard against encounters (Surah
Nisa: 71)” The geographic strategic importance and continuous security concerns, having India as the

neighboring state, unsettled border disputes require a budget. To neutralize, India’s race of gaining
modernized military equipment, there is a consistent need for up-gradation of present arms and
ammunition. Hence, reducing the military budget is not in favor of Pakistan.